• Purpose
• gathering much of the new information
• define where to invest my efforts
• Attributes
• a planned, deliberate set of strategies
• the primary method for absorbing new ideas and information in college.
• applies to and facilitates the other steps of the learning cycle:
1. Prepare
3. Record: Taking Notes
4. Review/Apply
• 4 steps of active reading
1. Preparing
3. Capturing the key ideas
4. Reviewing

• Start by thinking about why my instructor has chosen this text.
• Understand the background
• to get the context of the book
• to define what is most important in the text.
• Question example:
• Has the instructor said anything about the book or the author?
• how does it compare with the course syllabus?
• What can I learn about the author from the front matter of the book?
• Develop a plan to attack for my assignment
• understand the context
• Think of the reading assignment in relation to the large themes or goals the instructor has spelled out
• Question sample, with critical thinking, for understanding the context:
• What is the chapter title? Is the chapter divided into sections?
• What are the section titles?
• Which sections are longer?
• Are there any illustrations?
• Illustrations in books cost money, so chances are the author and publisher thought these topics were particularly important, or they would not have been included.
• How about tables? What kinds of information do they show?
• Are there bold or italicized words?
• Are these terms I’m familiar with, or are they new to me?
• Am I getting a sense for what is important in the chapter?
• Why did the author choose to cover certain ideas and to highlight specific ideas with graphics or boldface fonts?
• What do they tell me about what will be most important for me in my course?
• What do I think my instructor wants me to get out of the assignment? Why?
• Summarize chapter outlines
• Write note
• Turn the title of each major section of the reading into a question and write it down
• Example (section title => question):
• “The End of the Industrial Revolution” => “What caused the Industrial Revolution to end?”
• “The Chemistry of Photosynthesis” => “What chemical reactions take place to cause photosynthesis, and what are the outcomes?”
• jot down any keywords that appear in boldface
• find their definitions and the significance of each as I read
• With the outline method
• create subheadings for each section
• rephrasing each section title in terms of a question.
• with map method
• create branches for each section within the chapter
• Make sure I phrase each item as a question.

• Start by taking a look at my notes
• What is the question I’d like to answer in the first section?
• read through the entire section with the objective of understanding it.
• do not start taking notes or highlighting text at this point:
• Look for answers to the questions I wrote.
• Pay particular attention to the first and last lines of each paragraph.
• Think about the relationships among section titles, boldface words, and graphics.
• Skim quickly over parts of the section that are not related to the key questions.
• Expect to learn something new even if I’m familiar with the topic.
• Note taking
• Write the deep and complete answers for the questions I wrote before

### Capture the Key Ideas

• Make it my objective to highlight no more than 10 % of the text.
• Use my pencil also to make annotations in the margin.
• Use a symbol such as ! or * to mark an idea that is particularly important.
• Use ? to indicate something I don’t understand or are unclear about.
• Box new words, then write a short definition in the margin.
• Use TQ (for “test question”) or some other shorthand or symbol to signal key things that may appear in test or quiz questions.
• Write personal notes on items where I disagree with the author. If I’m reading an essay from a magazine or an academic journal, remember that such articles are typically written in response to other articles.
• remarkable words
• according to”, “Jones argues”: make it clear that the ideas don’t belong to the author of the piece I’m reading.
• yet”, “however”: indicate a turn from one idea to another.
• critical”, “significant”, “important”: signal ideas I should look at closely.
• Be sure to note when an author is quoting someone else or summarizing another person’s position.

### Review

• What did I learn?
• What does it mean?
2. write a summary of the assigned reading in my own words
3. cover up the answers to my questions and answer each of my questions aloud
• If the text has review questions at the end of the chapter, answer those, too.
5. Merge my reading notes with my class notes and review both together.
• How does my reading increase my understanding of what I have covered in class and vice versa?