Thinking and Critical Thinking
6 types of thinking skills
- Ranked in order of complexity
- Benjamin Bloom created a classification of thinking skills in the 1950s.
- Remembering and Recalling
- Retrieving or repeating information or ideas from memory.
- Interpreting, constructiong meaning, inferring, or explaining material from written, spoken, or graphic sources.
- Using learned material or implementing material in new situations.
- Breaking material or concepts into key elements and determining how the parts relate to one another or to an overall structure or purpose.
- This skill includes mental actions such as examining, contrasting or differentiating, separating, categorizing, experimenting, and deducting.
- Assesing, making judgements, and drawing conclusins from ideas, information, or data.
- Critiquing the value and usefulness of material.
- Putting parts together or reorganizing them in a new way, form, or product.
- a foundation for effective communication
- the principal skill used in effective decision making
- at the core of creating new knowledge
- a way to uncover bias and prejudices
- What is the problem or issue I am considering really about?
- What is the objectve?
- A position?
- A decision?
- Am I deciding what candidate in an election will do a better overall job, or are you using the issue to establish your independence?
- What are the terms related to the issue?
- Do I agree with the proponent’s definitions?
- What are my options?
- What are choices?
- Agree? or disagree? A? or B?
- What do I know about each option?
- How good is my information?
- brainstorming new ideas by asking a lot of questions.
The latter of inference helps us to stop ourselves from jumping to conclusions about situations.
Ad populum means that the argument is based on everyone does it.